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Whether trucks, trains and ships will be powered by batteries, hydrogen fuel cells or renewable fuels is one of the biggest open questions in the energy transition. Stanford’s “Decarbonizing Heavy-Duty Transportation” brief, written with industry collaboration, provides an overview of this topic. Multiple Stanford research teams are advancing the technologies and materials in each of these three areas. One research team is assessing the potential for electrification of medium and heavy-duty vehicles in the U.S. Another is developing battery deployment for 24/7 electrified bus fleets.