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Tortuosity Effects in Lithium-Metal Host Anodes


Lithium (Li) metal is the ultimate anode material for Li batteries because of its highest capacity among all candidates. Recent research has focused on stable interphase and host materials to address its low stability and reversibility. Here, we discover that tortuosity is a critical parameter affecting the morphology and electrochemical performances of hosted Li anodes. In three types of hosts—vertically aligned, horizontally aligned, and random reduced graphene oxide (rGO) electrodes with tortuosities of 1.25, 4.46, and 1.76, respectively—we show that high electrode tortuosity causes locally higher current density on the top surface of electrodes, resulting in thick Li deposition on the surface and degraded cycling performance. Low electrode tortuosity in the vertically aligned rGO host enables homogeneous Li transport and uniform Li deposition across the host, realizing greatly improved cycling stability. Using this principle of low tortuosity, the designed electrode shows through-electrode uniform morphology with anodic Coulombic efficiency of ∼99.1% under high current and capacity cycling conditions.