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Images of particles made from a promising battery cathode material called NMC


Most traditional energy technologies--and some alternative ones--consume a great deal of water, and they can affect the quality of freshwater supplies and coastal resources. Stanford scientists study the impact of large hydroelectric dams on groundwater and that of smaller dams on local fresh water. They also investigate the use of coastal shores for liquefied natural gas export facilities, the hydrologic pathways of food contamination from coal-fired power plants, and the economic interactions of energy and water supplies. (Note: Stanford research to reduce the consumption of energy by water systems is listed under “End Use/Efficiency”.)