District heating and cooling systems incorporating heat
recovery and large-scale thermal storage dramatically
reduce energy waste and greenhouse gas emissions.
Electrifying district energy systems also has the effect of
introducing city-scale controllable loads at the level of
the electrical substation. Here we explore the
opportunity for these systems to provide energy services
to the grid through capacity-based demand response
mechanisms. We present both a planning approach to
estimate available demand-side capacity and a control
framework to guide real-time scheduling when the
program is active. These tools are used to assess the
technical feasibility and the economic viability of
participating in capacity-based demand response in the
context of a real-world, megawatt-scale pilot during the
summer of 2018 on the Stanford University campus.